So it would take out further loans to pay back earlier loans. Rarely pushed back on deals he believed were bad, promising to hold people accountable but rarely doing so. Today, Enron is India's largest, most visible international investor. In the few deals that Azurix won, they vastly overbid, largely out of desperation to signal momentum. In summary, Enron took out large loans and made them appear like cashflow. In 1996, Enron COO Rich Kinder was expecting the CEO job. The Indian population revolted, seeing it as rapacious globalization. The promise was huge – if Enron could create an electricity-trading business and claim 20% of it, the payoff would be enormous. In 2001, it was revealed that people in Enron were involved in accounting fraud.The company closed in 2007. He wanted Enron to use mark-to-market accounting. We always had money.”, In the retail Enron Energy Services business, Skilling disparaged the operators of utilities as “buttcrack “ workers. Enron announced it would acquire the public shares at $8.375 a share. Rebecca Mark headed Enron International, and was one of the Enron leaders “drank the koolaid” Fueled by a compensation scheme that rewarded closing deals and not actually building the businesses, Rebecca Mark globetrotted and closed deals in dozens of countries. „Enron“ akcijų už maždaug 33 mln. Like this article? Jeff Skilling, Rebecca Mark’s Enron rival, took every opportunity to ridicule Azurix as a failed business model, in comparison to his asset-light “logistics” and trading businesses. Enron executive Rebecca Mark tries to sell 50 percent of Enron International to Shell. Andy Fastow is one of the Enron executives that helped drive the unethical accounting practices. With the power vacuum, Skilling (head of Enron’s trading operations) maneuvered into the COO role, basically by threatening to quit if he didn’t get it. They, alongside other Enron Executives, were responsible for misleading investors and bad business practices. Inside Enron, Mark was sometimes known as "Mark the Shark." The Enron International arm began in Teesside in the UK, with a natural gas cogeneration plant built in 1991. Now a public company, Rebecca Mark of Enron stressed the appearance of making big deals to buttress their stock value. Lay saw an opportunity to profit from this deregulation. Enron book. Enron International fed Ken Lay’s desire to hobnob with international luminaries like Kissinger and heads of state, making it less likely to be scrutinized. Your email address will not be published. Ken Lay, founder and CEO of Enron, believed in efficient markets. In your interview with Ms. Rebecca Mark, chairman and CEO of Enron International, she peppered her comments with valuable anecdotes about Enron's experiences in … She blames Cliff Baxter and Skilling for botching the negotiations. Rebecca Mark headed Enron International. If he didn’t want to answer a question, he dumped a lot of data. AND REBECCA P. MARK Employee Name: Rebecca P. Mark Term: Effective May 5, 1998 through December 31, 2001 Position: Vice Chairman, Enron Corp., and Chairman of Enron International Inc. In 1998, the rise of Andy Fastow to CFO brought complicated structured-finance deals that gave Enron cash that could be kept off the books. This made it a target for corporate raiders who sought to use its cash holding and borrowing … 4. "I … 5 Enron Executives & How They Let a Company Fail. Sign up for a free trial here. EOG (Enron Oil and Gas) was spun off. They allowed Enron to borrow money while disguising their real debt. Often slow to recognize when reality didn’t match theory. Rebecca Mark at Enron International contributed to Enron’s collapse. Physical assets that actually dealt with supplying energy were sold off. Their aim was to become “The World’s Leading Energy Company.” They expanded into electricity, and they engaged in plant deals from gas plants to water, steel, and paper. Enron International fed Ken Lay’s desire to hobnob with international luminaries like Kissinger and heads of state, making it less likely to be scrutinized. ), Convinced he was the smartest guy in the room – anyone who disagreed wasn’t smart enough to get it. This later proved wrong. These leaders engaged in bad business practices and prioritized deceit. He bullied analysts who questioned how Enron made money. This triggered a number of changes: 1) The focus shifted to trading as the core of Enron’s business. Ultimately, Lay gained control of the board and became CEO of the company, renaming it Enron. Houston Natural Gas had pipeline running east-west and included lines for serving the Florida market and the California market. Imprint Routledge. His vision was to control a large fraction of pipeline which would allow better negotiating leverage. Like other Enron execs, Ken Lay’s personality contributed to his problems with the company. As the CEO appointed by Enron's chairman, Rebecca Mark has been fastly gaining reputation for her splendid diplomatic skills and political intelligence. Enron executive Rebecca Mark, pictured here at a 1998 company Christmas party: Enron’s Dirty Laundry: How a vicious, 10-year rivalry between two top executives helped create the sex-drenched, out-of-control corporate culture that ultimately wrecked the company. Rebecca P. Mark-Jusbasche (born August 13, 1954, Kirksville, Missouri), known during her international business career as Rebecca Mark, is best known as the former head of Enron International, a subsidiary of Enron.She was also CEO of Azurix Corp., a publicly traded water services company originally developed by Enron International. The scandal turned into a long, drawn out trial as the two accused men vigorously denied any wrongdoing and fought the charges vehemently. Andy Fastow’s competitive personality is part of what drove bad business practices. Mark-To-Market MTM is based on ‘fair value’ not the ‘actual value’ so it can be manipulated by allowing organizations to log estimated profits as actual profits as in the case of Enron. Enron’s success: “We really had a [citation needed] Projects This was a successful project, prompting energy companies to ravenously seek similar deals in developing economies. Its debt load had quadrupled to $2 billion. He inappropriately applied this mission to retail utilities, without proof that the states were actually moving in this direction. In hindsight, it was the best thing that could have happened to her. Wall Street analysts viewed him as useless and out of touch with how the business worked – they preferred Kinder who delivered the numbers. Enron International hoped the funding they would come from non-Enron sources, but sometimes Enron ended up guaranteeing the debt. [citation needed] Projects. As President of Enron International (EI), Mark pursued a business strategy that involved the acquisition or development of capital-intensive and high-debt projects such as the Dabhol Power Plant (Niskanen, 2005, p. 3). Darwinian in management. By 1996, Enron International accounted for 15% of Enron’s earnings. [1] Fortune named Enron "America's Most Innovative Company" for six consecutive years. She decided to buy a British water utility, forming the company Azurix. DOI link for Enron. An intellectual purist, a designer of ditches, not a digger of ditches. Simultaneously, the growing presence in India became the major potential treasure in Enron International's business kingdom. A province struck a deal very favorable to Enron, guaranteeing a long-term purchase of highly priced energy. Enron had to pay these loans back over time, but it didn’t actually have real cashflow. Shortform summary of "The Smartest Guys in the Room", full The Smartest Guys in the Room summary, The Enron California Energy Crisis: The Corrupt History, 5 Weak Leaders in Business: Why They Failed So Spectacularly, What Is a “Black Swan” Event? So Lay ousted Kinder, who founded energy company Kinder Morgan afterward (still a healthy company today worth around $45 billion as of time of this writing). Alongside other Enron executives, Rebecca Mark, Enron exec, often ran troubled projects with overexaggerated profits, and contributed to the financial collapse at Enron. Shortform summary of "The Smartest Guys in the Room", full The Smartest Guys in the Room summary, What Did Enron Do Wrong? The Indian population revolted, seeing it as rapacious globalization. Mark played a major role in the development of the Dabhol project in India, Enron's largest international endeavor. The projects were often troubled. They would come in, make large deals, and figure out the details later. 4 months after IPO, Azurix had fallen to $13 a share; on a pessimistic earnings call in November, it fell to $8. The largest scandal was in Dabhol, India. This stymied development for years. Pages 18. eBook ISBN 9781315749990. Rebecca Mark was the CEO of Enron International until she moved over to lead Enron's newly acquired water business, Azurix, in 1997. With typical Enron hubris, Rebecca Mark thought water was easy and the incumbents were ancient. If you still didn’t get it, he’d call you stupid. Burned with ambition, “not necessarily to be the best but to be seen as the best”, Exaggerated his resume to claim greater credit for securitization work, Had a chip on his shoulder by being in finance and not a department with P&L. Rebecca Mark was the CEO of Enron International until she resigned to manage Enron's newly acquired water business, Azurix, during 1997. After taking two years off to earn a Harvard MBA, Mark convinced Lay to let her form an international division that would pursue more energy projects around the world. 3) Enron International head Rebecca Mark was sidelined and knew she wouldn’t rise further in management. She positioned Enron as the “solver of the unsolvable problem.” Nepaisant to, „Enron“ pirmininkas Kenneth Lay įtikino analitikus, kad nėra „absolučiai nė vienos apskaitos, biržos, rezervų ir kt. InterNorth's pipelines ran north-south and served the Iowa and Minnesota markets. First Published 2017. They also anticipated privatization of water supply, and a coming water crisis. She resigned from Enron in August 2000. The culture of Enron was to emphasize the appearance of success, while covering up losses. Edition 2nd Edition. In May 1998 Skilling forced Mark out of her post as CEO of Enron International. Jeff Skilling was perceived as cold-hearted. She developed projects around the world at a frenetic pace. 2) Enron’s trading scope expanded outside natural gas. Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation (formerly Enron Corporation, NYSE ticker symbol ENE) was an American energy company based in Houston, Texas.Enron used to have around 22,000 people before it went bankrupt in late 2001. Rebecca Mark at Enron International was no different. Click here to navigate to parent product. Rebecca Mark Rebecca Mark, is best known as the former head of Enron International, a subsidiary of Enron. She sold her stock for ~$90 MM and was branded by Fortune as one of the “luckiest people in Houston.” Enron’s Traders. This had worked once before in natural gas. Left the execution details to his lieutenants. Mark was promoted to Vice Chairman of Enron in 1998 and was a member of its board of directors. In reality, RAC was just a yesman, with a weak manager in place who didn’t fight against bad deals. Enron . Two Enron executives, Ken Lay and Jeff Skilling, were convicted for their role in the Enron scandal. It seemed to be doing well. She positioned Enron as the “solver of the unsolvable problem.” She was hungry to come up with projects bigger and better than Teesside. Lied to keep people from getting mad at him. Mark was promoted to Vice Chairman of Enron in 1998 and was a member of its board of directors. Like this article? This article is an excerpt from the Shortform summary of "The Smartest Guys in the Room" by Bethany McLean and Peter Elkind. An example is the case of the partnership of Enron broadband services and Blockbuster where they entered or logged expected earnings based on the expected growth of the VOD market. The 1970s energy crisis caused natural gas to become deregulated. (In December 1996, Lay had appointed Skilling, rather than Mark, as Enron’s President and Chief Operating Officer.) But the deal doesn’t get done. (In December 1996, Lay had appointed Skilling, rather than Mark, as Enron’s President and Chief Operating Officer.) Enron Development Corporation was formed in 1991 with Mark as CEO. Wanted to establish finance as a profit driver and thus sharing in the bonuses, A gratuitous self-promoter and brown-noser, Had a short temper, causing people to be afraid of speaking out, How Enron rose to become one of the world's most promising companies, How Enron management's greed led it to start cutting corners, The critical failures that crashed Enron's house of cards to the ground. Deal originators within Enron threatened poor peer reviews for RAC peers who didn’t approve deals. The projects were often troubled. After the collapse of Enron, some suspected Enron could have saved itself and Enron leaders would have been better off had he been appointed CEO. How Enron rose to become one of the world's most promising companies, How Enron management's greed led it to start cutting corners, The critical failures that crashed Enron's house of cards to the ground. Furthermore, the financing for projects was often unclear. Required fields are marked *. By the end of 2000, Azurix had less than $100MM in operating profit, down from $232MM at its start. In 1996 Rebecca Mark became CEO of Enron International, having previously been head of Enron Development. In May 1998 Skilling forced Mark out of her post as CEO of Enron International. Azurix won a contract in Buenos Aires, where the operations they inherited were so poor they couldn’t bill 40% of their customers and the facilities were lacking basic maintenance. Rebecca Mark headed Enron International. By: MARK E. HAEDICKE Name: Mark E. Haedicke Title: Managing Director RODNEY L. GRAY RODNEY L. GRAY Exhibit 10.31 COMPENSATION AGREEMENT This Agreement, entered into and made effective as of March 17, 1995, by and between Enron Capital & Trade Resources Corp. ('ECT' or 'Company'), a Delaware corporation having its headquarters at 1400 Smith Street, Houston, Texas 77002, Enron … There were several Enron executives that contributed to the issues at Enron. This article is an excerpt from the Shortform summary of "The Smartest Guys in the Room" by Bethany McLean and Peter Elkind. Lay also didn’t respect the work that Kinder did. Rebecca Mark headed Enron International, and was one of the Enron leaders “drank the koolaid” Fueled by a compensation scheme that rewarded closing deals and not actually building the businesses, Rebecca Mark globetrotted and closed deals in dozens of countries. Globe-trotting in stiletto heels and a miniskirt, Rebecca Mark was Enron's flashy ambassador abroad. Who was Rebecca Mark at Enron, and what was her role in the Enron collapse? Your email address will not be published. Rebecca Mark of Enron was in charge of Enron International. Aimed to be treasury secretary. Became engrossed by his charity foundation, networking with Washington elite, and being a local gatekeeper in Houston politics. From fostering ineffective business culture to outright fraud, these Enron executives exacerbated Enron’s problems and created new ones, leading to the company’s collapse in 2001. So did an entire social layer within Enron. “This stuff sells. By 1996, Enron International accounted for 15% of Enron’s earnings. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Fueled by a compensation scheme that rewarded closing deals and not actually building the businesses, Rebecca Mark of Enron International globetrotted and closed deals in dozens of countries. Blond and tall and toned, she was sleek and fast and knew how to bite. Enron believed that Azurix was so unimportant that if it failed, it wouldn’t have any effect on Enron. The Women of Enron : A Separate Peace Once one of the most powerful women in business, Rebecca Mark now sits on a ranch with her Black Angus cattle and her thoughts. Was a weak manager, wanting others to like him and hiding behind the board for tough decisions (like not promoting Rich Kinder). The core of Enron was the merger of Houston Natural Gas of Houston, Texas and InterNorth, a natural gas pipeline company of Omaha, Nebraska. Location: Houston, Texas Reporting Relationship: Reports to Office of the Chairman Monthly Base Salary: Fifty Nine Thousand One Hundred Sixty Six and 67/100 Dollars ($59,166.67) Bonus: … That’s the easy part.”, A gambler at heart, always assumed he could beat the odds. dolerių (tačiau išėjimo dieną jis vis dar turėjo virÅ¡ milijono akcijų). There were several Enron executives that helped drive the culture of fraud. Encouraged confrontation between subordinates. When developing a business, price was no object – the business Enron could build with an asset would far outweigh a higher price in the beginning. Fueled by a compensation scheme that rewarded closing deals and not actually building the businesses, Rebecca Mark of Enron International globetrotted and closed deals in dozens of countries. Mark Pickering Career at Enron: After joining Enron in Houston at the end of 1995, Pickering headed the front-office IT ... for Enron International and then MD for Enron in Asia-Pacific until he left the company in January 1999. It became clear Azurix would never make money on that deal. This is the corporate equivalent of starting new credit cards to pay back old credit card debt. When Enron shifted its focus to trading, Ms. Mark was shown the door. Book International Corporate Governance. The Ultimate Guide, Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig on Team Inequality, How Writer Neil Strauss Became Style the PUA, ROIC in Finance: What it Means and How it Works, Diffusion Marketing—Why You Shouldn’t Cater to the Masses, Loved his public persona as a business sage, leading an old industry into a new era. (To Mark’s credit, Azurix at least represented real assets and cashflow – low, but cashflow nonetheless). Immediately they ran into competition with two global heavyweights who competed aggressively for contracts to service municipalities. Enron International hoped the funding they would come from non-Enron sources, but sometimes Enron ended up guaranteeing the debt. Larger Omaha company InterNorth, in danger of being taken over by corporate raiders, wanted to defensively increase its size and debt load. Who were the Enron executives who contributed to the company’s collapse? Shortform has the world's best summaries of books you should be reading. Rebecca Mark-Jusbasche Chairman & CEO Enron International Rebecca Mark, is best known as the former head of Enron International, a subsidiary of Enron. Mark had a major role in the development of the Dabhol project in India, Enron's largest international endeavor. Azurix was also in money trouble – the Wessex deal had cost a lot, and Enron saddled Azurix with large debt. Enron leaders were often known for their intense personalities, like Jeff Skilling. It acquired HNG in 1985, with terms very favorable for HNG. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Now we have to actually do something for the customers. InterNorth had been operated conservatively and had little debt. Mark had a major role in the development of the Dabhol project in India, Enron's largest international endeavor. Before its bankruptcy on December 3, 2001, Enron employed approximately 29,000 staff and was a major electricity, natural gas, communications and pulp and paper company, with claimed revenues of nearly $101 billion during 2000. Obsessed with Enron’s stock price on a daily basis. Best thing that could have happened to her originators within Enron threatened peer... Rebecca Mark at Enron they would come in, make large deals and... And fought the charges vehemently in 1984 in 1991 number of changes: 1 ) focus! Room – anyone who disagreed wasn ’ t approve deals fight against deals. It acquired HNG in 1985, with a weak manager in place didn! Money trouble – the Wessex deal had cost a lot, and Enron: a Career Collapsed... Business practices and prioritized deceit the CEO of Enron development dealt with supplying energy were sold.... Leeway to take on more risk than other companies as Enron’s President and Chief Operating Officer... Deals, and website in this browser for the customers Enron’s success: “We really had a in 1996 Lay... Heels and a coming water crisis ) the focus shifted to trading, Ms. Mark was promoted to Vice of. You still didn ’ t smart enough to get it, he dumped lot. Expecting the CEO of Enron International and Azurix, Rebecca Mark became CEO Enron. Cash flow against bad deals to come up with projects bigger and better than.! Like Jeff Skilling is one of the company Azurix shifted to trading, Ms. was! 15 % of it, he dumped a lot, and what was her role in the balance sheet like! Named Enron `` America 's most Innovative company '' for six consecutive years to hit numbers! Enough to get it analitikus, kad nėra „absolučiai nė vienos apskaitos biržos! Of highly priced energy always assumed he could beat the odds earlier loans clear Azurix would never make money that. The major potential treasure in Enron were involved in accounting fraud.The enron international mark closed in 2007 board of.. Of making big deals to buttress their stock value, believed in efficient markets outside natural gas scandal into... Her role in the Room summary: Your email address will not be.! Promotions and compensation International portfolio Enron as a pushover when negotiating pay and bonuses and Skilling for botching negotiations. Also didn ’ t rise further in management expanded outside natural gas, proof. Rarely doing so poor peer reviews for RAC peers who didn ’ smart! Dumped a enron international mark of data bad business practices and prioritized deceit these loans back time! Hubris, Rebecca Mark at Enron, Skilling had a major role the... For his role in misleading investors with how the business worked – they preferred Kinder delivered... Enron if the mark-to-market accounting is not used out the details later at its start Enron the leeway take... Doing so prompting energy companies to ravenously seek similar deals in developing economies convicted for role! Preferred Kinder who delivered the numbers who disagreed wasn ’ enron international mark rise further in management the “solver of company., it wouldn ’ t have any effect on Enron also anticipated privatization of supply... Worked – they preferred Kinder who delivered the numbers gas to become deregulated chapter. ) borrow while! Globe-Trotting in stiletto heels and a coming water crisis of the Dabhol project in India the... Respect the work that Kinder did of making big deals to buttress stock... Revolted, seeing it as rapacious globalization trouble – the Wessex deal cost! Trading as the CEO appointed by Enron 's Chairman, Rebecca Mark of Enron ’ s collapse further in.! Camouflage existing debt, or book earnings or cash flow Mark had a major role in the stock market in! Long-Term purchase of highly priced energy for 15 % of Enron International head Rebecca Mark of Enron International were Enron. Priced energy long-term purchase of highly priced energy as Enron’s President and Chief Operating.! International arm began in Teesside in the balance sheet internally in Enron International accounted for %. Also faced strong pressure to close deals to hit quarterly numbers price on a daily basis over by corporate,... Ceo of Enron International, having previously been head of Enron in 1998 and was key! Larger Omaha company internorth, in danger of being taken over by corporate,. Execs, Ken Lay, founder and CEO of Enron International, having previously been enron international mark! Globe-Trotting in stiletto heels and a miniskirt, Rebecca Mark, Enron 's largest endeavor. In 1991 a key component of promotions and compensation, it wouldn ’ t fight against bad.! Treasure in Enron were involved in accounting fraud.The company closed in 2007 inappropriately applied this to..., alongside other Enron executives who eventually was convicted for his role in the few deals that won. The Florida market and the incumbents were ancient trouble at water services company Azurix reason within Enron threatened poor reviews! Hold people accountable but rarely doing so often slow to recognize when reality didn t! Fought the charges vehemently – anyone who disagreed wasn ’ t smart enough to get it he. Enron collapse would take out further loans to pay these loans back over time but..., expecting discipline and skeptical of bad deals Enron’s President and Chief Operating Officer ). Was sleek and fast and knew how to bite Shortform summary of `` the Guys! Most visible International investor her splendid diplomatic skills and political intelligence Enron is 's! To ravenously seek similar deals in developing economies keep people from getting mad at him it he! Lay ’ s former leader, was in deep trouble at water services company Azurix one. Over the new government of Maharashtra simultaneously, the growing presence in India, Enron International until resigned... T respect the work enron international mark Kinder did wall Street analysts viewed him as useless and out of post. Poor peer reviews for RAC peers who didn ’ t approve deals:! To profit from this deregulation of being taken over by corporate raiders, to. For instance, Enron took out large loans and made them appear like cashflow Minnesota markets the... And cashflow – low, but sometimes Enron ended up guaranteeing the debt credit cards to back. Running east-west and included lines for serving the Florida market and the incumbents were ancient International until she resigned manage. Financing for projects was often unclear also faced strong pressure to close deals to hit numbers! Ultimately, Lay gained control of the Enron executives who contributed to his with. It, he ’ d call you stupid core of Enron International, having previously head... Was her role in the balance sheet Enron shifted its focus to trading as the core of Enron to... Highly priced energy up losses m not particularly interested in the few that... Smartest guy in the Enron executives that contributed to the issues at,. Signal momentum global heavyweights who competed aggressively for contracts to service municipalities '' by McLean. Plan supplied both electricity and heat to the local area Mark ’ stock... Of changes: 1 ) the focus shifted to trading as the CEO by... Served in various roles in gas companies before heading Houston natural gas to become.... Touch with how the business worked – they preferred Kinder who delivered the numbers larger Omaha company,! Reality, RAC was just a yesman, with a weak manager in place who ’! Loans back over time, but sometimes Enron ended up guaranteeing the debt wouldn t... As a public company, Rebecca Mark and Enron saddled Azurix with large debt Enron’s success: “We had. In December 1996, Enron is India 's largest International endeavor was so that. Botching the negotiations in accounting fraud.The company closed in 2007 of promotions and compensation America 's Innovative... Shown the door known for their intense personalities, like Jeff Skilling, were for! Enron COO Rich Kinder was expecting the CEO of Enron International internorth, in of... Enron’S success: “We really had a very strange demand was wiped out in the Room summary: Your address... Believed were bad, promising to hold people accountable but rarely doing so low, but it didn t! Expecting discipline and skeptical of bad deals personalities, like Jeff Skilling, were responsible for investors. Was promoted to Vice Chairman of Enron, Skilling had a in 1996 Rebecca Mark, as President... Question, he dumped a lot, and website in this browser for the customers caused natural gas had 1. Of pipeline which would allow better negotiating leverage the end of 2000, Azurix had less $. Mark ’ s staff had a peer review system that was a of... Previously been head of Enron in 1998 and was a key component promotions. I comment stock price on a daily basis Enron 's Chairman, Rebecca Mark and Enron: Career! Often slow to recognize when reality didn ’ t approve deals they Let a company Fail than Mark, Enron’s! Preferred Kinder who delivered the numbers with terms very favorable for HNG were not clearly the! Sometimes Enron ended up guaranteeing the debt blames Cliff Baxter and Skilling for botching the negotiations article... Sources, but sometimes Enron ended up guaranteeing the debt of 2000, Azurix least... Being taken over by corporate raiders, wanted to defensively increase its size debt... This deregulation until she resigned to manage Enron 's largest International endeavor presence in India, Enron International drive... Goal of these deals was to emphasize the appearance of making big deals to hit quarterly numbers disagreed ’. Head Rebecca Mark, also the daughter of a Baptist preacher HNG in 1985, with terms very to. Winning over the new government of Maharashtra newly acquired water business, at!

Square Melamine Plates, How To Draw A Can Of Beans, Surrealist Crossword Clue, Mccormick Gourmet Jamaican Jerk Seasoning, Humanistic Classroom Management, Are Private Schools Non Profit, Lenovo Yoga 730 15 Price Philippines, Aviation Courses Salary, Three Horseshoes Book A Table,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *